188.8.131.52 Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors
|Choice||Drug||Dosage (type 2 diabetes)|
|Formulary choices||Canagliflozin 100mg, 300mg tablets|
Dose: 10mg once daily
|Empagliflozin 10mg, 25mg tablets||Dose: |
10mg once daily, increased to 25mg once daily if necessary and tolerated.
Renal impairment – see BNF
Adults 85 years and over: initiation not recommended
- Prescribe as per NICE Guideline NG28 recommendations. See also NICE visual summary for blood glucose lowering therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes.
- Differences in licensed indications between the SGLT2 inhibitors should be considered when selecting an appropriate drug
- Glycaemic lowering efficacy of SGLT-2 inhibitors is dependent on renal function and is reduced in patients who have moderate renal impairment and likely absent in patients with severe renal impairment.
- Counsel patients on ‘sick day guidance’ with SGLT-2 inhibitors – click here for further information.
- Dapagliflozin and empagliflozin are accepted for use as options for treating symptomatic chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in adults, only if they are used as an add-on to optimised standard care. Treatment should only be started on the advice of a heart failure specialist. For further information see NICE TA679 and NICE TA773.
- Glycosuria, osmotic symptoms and a slightly higher rate of problems due to volume depletion effects (dehydration, hypovolaemia and hypotension) are seen with SGLT-2 inhibitors. Use with caution in those on loop diuretics and frail elderly patients.
- Serious cases of diabetic ketoacidosis have been reported in patients taking an SGLT-2 inhibitor. See MHRA Drug Safety Update April 2016 for advice. Address modifiable risks for DKA before starting an SGLT2 inhibitor. For example, people who are following a very low carbohydrate or ketogenic diet may need to delay treatment until they have changed their diet.
- Canagliflozin may increase the risk of lower-limb amputation (mainly toes) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Evidence does not show an increased risk for dapagliflozin and empagliflozin, but the risk may be a class effect. Preventive foot care is important for all patients with diabetes. See MHRA advice for healthcare professionals.
- There have been reports of Fournier’s gangrene (necrotising fasciitis of the genitalia or perineum) with SGLT2 inhibitors. If Fournier’s gangrene is suspected, stop the SGLT2 inhibitor and start treatment urgently (including antibiotics and surgical debridement). Fournier’s gangrene is a rare but potentially life-threatening infection that requires urgent medical attention. See MHRA for further details.